Research point: 4 Dutch realist painters (part 1)

We are asked to research the work of the Dutch realist genre painters and choose two or three paintings that appeal to us. Then we are also asked to look at interiors that have been painted by various artists from different periods and look at how the illusion of space has been created. This is also a massive brief and I have split my response up into two posts. The first just listing the Dutch realist painters and focusing on two paintings.

A-Z List of Dutch Realist Artists

Brouwer, Adriaen (1605-38)   Noted for his tavern genre-pictures.

Pieter Claesz (1597-1660)   Specialist in breakfast still lifes (ontbijtjes)

Cuyp, Aelbert (1620-91)   Dordrecht school landscape artist.

Hals, Frans (1582-1666)   Dutch portrait artist second only to Rembrandt.

Heda, Willem Claesz (1594-1680)    Still life master from the Haarlem school.

Heem, Jan Davidsz de (1606-83)    Still life painter, Utrecht School.

Hobbema, Meindert (1638-1709)    Last of the great Dutch Realist landscape painters.

Honthorst, Gerrit van (1592-1656)    Follower of caravaggism; Utrecht school; noted for genre painting, portraits.

Hooch, Pieter de (1629-83)   Noted member of Delft school.

Hoogstraten, Samuel van (1627-78)   Genre painter of interiors, peep-show pictures, trompe l’oeil illusionism.

Kalf, Willem (1619-93)   Amsterdam still life artist, noted for Pronkstilleven paintings.

Metsu, Gabriel (1629-67)    Painted intimate small-scale genre scenes.

Ostade, Adriaen van (1610-85)   Peasant scene artist, Haarlem school.

Rembrandt (1606-1669)    The world’s greatest portrait artist, master of chiaroscuro technique.

Ruisdael, Jacob Van (1628-82)   Landscape painter from the Haarlem school. Known for The Jewish Cemetery.

Ruysch, Rachel (1664-1750)    Greatest flower painter of the Late Baroque era.

Saenredam, Pieter (1597-1665)    Architectural painter of churches active in Haarlem.

Snyders, Frans (1579-1657)    Undisputed master of Baroque still life: Antwerp school.

Steen, Jan (1626-79)    Member of Leiden school, noted for his tavern genre scenes.

Steenwyck, Harmen van (1612-56)    Arguably the greatest exponent of vanitas still life painting.

Teniers, David the Younger (1610-90)    Best known for his guardroom scenes.

Terborch, Gerard (1617-81)    Haarlem school genre painter.

Terbrugghen, Hendrik (1588-1629)    Genre-painter, Utrecht school.

Vermeer, Jan (1632-1675)    Delft school Dutch genre-painter; went unrecognized in his own lifetime.

Witte, Emanuel de (1615-92)    Alkmaar architectural painter noted for whitewashed church interiors.

Other famous painters of the Dutch Baroque style of painting in the Protestant Netherlands included: Ferdinand Bol, Gerard Dou, Carel Fabritius, Jacob Jordaens, Nicolaes Maes, and Paulus Potter.

                                                Famous Paintings By Dutch Realist Painters

Hendrick Avercamp (1585-1634)    A Scene on the Ice Near a Town (1615) National Gallery, London.

Hendrik Terbrugghen (1588-1629)    Flute Players (1621) Staatliche Kunstsammlungen, Kassel.

Adriaen Brouwer (1605-38)    The Operation (1631) Alte Pinakothek, Munich.

Judith Leyster (1609-60)    Carousing Couple (1630) Louvre Museum, Paris.

The Rejected Offer (1631) Mauritshuis, The Hague.

Adriaen van Ostade (1610-85)    Rustic Concert (1638) oil on canvas, Prado, Madrid.

Interior with Peasants (1663) Wallace Collection, London.

David Teniers the Younger (1610-90)    Gambling Scene at an Inn (1649) Wallace Collection, London.

Gerrit Dou (1613-75)    Maidservant at a Window (1640) Museum Boymans-van Beuningen, Rotterdam.

The Mousetrap (1645-50) Musee Fabre, Montpelier.

Gerard Terborch (1617-81)    Parental Admonition (1654-55) Staatliche Museen zu Berlin.

Woman Writing a Letter (1655) Mauritshuis, The Hague.

Samuel Van Hoogstraten (1627-78)   The Slippers (1654-60) oil on canvas, Louvre, Paris.

View down the Corridor (1662) oil on panel, Dyrham Park, UK.

Gabriel Metsu (1629-67)    The Prodigal Son (1640s) oil on canvas, Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg.

The Music Lesson (1658) oil on canvas, National Gallery, London.

Pieter de Hooch (1629-83)    Courtyard of a House in Delft (1658) oil on canvas, National Gallery, London.

The Linen Cupboard (1663) Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.

Jan Vermeer (1632-1675)    Soldier and a Laughing Girl (c.1658) oil on canvas, Frick Collection, New York.

The Milkmaid (c.1658-1660) oil on canvas, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.

Young Woman with a Water Jug/Pitcher (c.1662) Metropolitan Museum, NY.

Woman Holding a Balance (1662-3) National Gallery of Art, Washington DC.

Woman with a Pearl Necklace (c.1662) SMPK, Gemaldegalerie, Berlin.

The Music Lesson (Lady/Gentleman at the Virginals) (c.1665) Royal Collection.

The Concert (c.1665-1666) Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston, MA.

The Art of Painting (c.1666-1673) Kunsthistorisches Museum.

The Lacemaker (c.1669-1670) Louvre, Paris.

Nicolas Maes (1634-93)    The Eavesdropper (1657) Dordrecht Museum, Dordrecht.

17th Century Dutch Realist Portrait Paintings

Frans Hals (1582-1666)   The Laughing Cavalier (1625) Wallace Collection, London.

Rembrandt (1606-69)    The Merchant Nicolaes Ruts (1631) The Frick Collection, New York.

The Anatomy Lesson of Dr Nicolaes Tulp (1632) Mauritshuis.

Portrait of a Young Woman with the Fan (1632) Nationalmuseum Stockholm.

The Shipbuilder Jan Rijcksen and His Wife Griet Jans (1633) Royal Collection.

Danae (1636) Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia.

Mennonite Preacher Cornelis Claesz Ansloo and his Wife (1641) Berlin.

Portrait of Agatha Bas (1641) Royal Collection, UK.

Old Rabbi (1642) Szepmuveseti Muzeum, Budapest.

The Night Watch (1642) Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.

Portrait of Hendrickje Stoffels (c.1650) Louvre, Paris.

Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer (1653) Metropolitan Museum, NY.

Portrait of Jan Six (1654) The Six Collection, Amsterdam.

Lady with an Ostrich-Feather Fan (1660) National Gallery, Washington DC.

The Syndics of the Cloth-Makers Guild (1662) Rijksmuseum.

The Jewish Bride (Isaac and Rebecca) (c.1666) Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.

Jan Vermeer (1632-1675)

Girl with a Red Hat (1665-6) National Gallery of Art, Washington DC.

Girl with a Pearl Earring (1666) Mauritshuis, The Hague.

17th Century Dutch Realist Still Life Paintings

Harmen Steenwyck (1612-56)

An Allegory of the Vanities of Human Life (1645) National Gallery, London

Jan Davidsz de Heem (1606-83)

A Table of Desserts (1640) Louvre, Paris

Willem Kalf (1619-93)

Still Life with Chinese Porcelain Jar (1662) Gemaldegalerie, SMPK, Berlin

Jan Steen (1626-79)

Beware of Luxury (1663) Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.

The Christening Feast (1664) oil on canvas, Wallace Collection, London.

17th Century Dutch Realist History Paintings

Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-69)

Bathsheba Holding King David’s Letter (1654) Louvre, Paris.

The Conspiracy of Claudius Civilis (1661) Nationalmuseum, Stockholm.

Suicide of Lucretia (1666) Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis.

Return of the Prodigal Son (1666-69) Hermitage, St Petersburg.

David Teniers the Younger

David Teniers the Younger ‘Gambling scene at an inn’ c. 1640

The men at the cnetre of the study are probably fairly well-to-do, if you take their clothing as any hint. The man in the orange/red coat has a flamboyant hat and boots/under socks. He looks about to throw some dice. The man seated at the table on the left is also dressed well, in pale blue rich fabric and his cloak is folded neatly and laid across a bench on the far right of the composition, possibly that is his walking stick propped across it and resting on the floor. The man on the left could be a worker in the inn, or the landlord, he is writing something in chalk on the board – maybe keeping score? There is a substantial flagon of ale or wine on the floor. The other men at the table do not appear to be as wealthy and maybe are being conned? There is a group of men in the background on the right of the picture plane, out of focus but also apparently intent on some form of gambling. The colours being used in this painting are complementaries – blues and red-orange. The artist has strongly lit the two main characters and placed them in the ‘sweet spots’ on the canvas. The keg on the left points at the drama in the centre of the picture – the chair behind the man in red/orange also acts as a marker, to keep your eyes moving back and forth between the central players. This is a typical ‘slice of life’ painting by Teniers, who created several paintings of people from all walks of life going about their business in taverns.

Nicolas Maes

Nicolas Maes ‘The Listening housewife/ The Eavesdropper’
Nicolas Maes The Eavesdropper c. 1655
Nicolas Maes The Eavesdropper c.1656

Maes was a pupil of Rembrandt and he painted several pictures of people apparently eavesdropping on their employers. These all use chiaroscuro techniques and perspective in a masterful way. His use of colour – particularly in the focal colours (red-orange mostly) is gorgeous. The colours are rich and again use complementary combinations. There is just the faintest hint of blue in the wash basket next to the woman in the background (who is being visited by her lover perhaps). The quiet glee of the young girl caught by the painter as she eavesdrops on the conversation of the lovers in the next room, is so charming; there is no malice in her eyes or hint of betrayal. I was quite struck by this painting, it glows with love and gentle good humour, it does not feel voyeuristic at all.

Bibliography David Teniers the Younger – about the painting ‘Gambling Scene at an Inn’ c.1640

4 thoughts on “Research point: 4 Dutch realist painters (part 1)

  1. Steve Meyfroidt April 13, 2020 — 4:31 pm

    Is this like “investigate the history of painting and make notes in your learning log?” 🤣🤣🤣

    Liked by 1 person

  2. Wonderful. Very well done.


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